Φάνης - FS Band* - The Fame Story 3 Album 2004-2005 - Part One (CD, Album)
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Size px x x x x West with Frances T. West All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN acid-free paper 1. Murphy, Frances T.
The publishers will be glad to rectify, in future editions, any errors or omissions brought to their notice. Text design by Joan M. Date printed: June, Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Without these, this book could not have been written. Thank you to Claudia Schaab for offering us the opportunity to explore Australian history to this depth and guiding the manuscript through the publication process quickly and painlessly.
Thank you also to Bronwyn Collie for her careful and considered editing. W viii Introduction ustralia is a mass of contradictions. The oldest land on Earth was one of the last to be found by European sailors during the Age of Exploration. Members of the oldest continuously surviving culture on Earth became citizens of the country in which they live only in The sixth-largest country in the world by landmass in had only a million more people than the U. Despite its relatively low population, about 22 million inand very low population density, about 7.
In trying to understand these and a host of other contradictory and unfamiliar aspects of the country, both academic and popular authors writing about Australia often try to pin down the entire place in a single catchphrase. While all of these capture some essence of the place, none of them works entirely. Australia is all of these things, and more. This brief history of Australia begins with a chapter that places it in context, exploring the land and its people in broad brushstrokes.
This is followed by a chapter on precontact Aboriginal culture based on the work of archaeologists and other prehistorians, as well as ethnographers who have spoken at length with contemporary Aboriginal peoples about their histories. In conjunction with the suggested reading list, three appendixes, a chronology, and extensive bibliography, A Brief History of Australia provides a comprehensive introduction to the country and its people.
SinceAustralia has also held a large amount of the Antarctic territory but without the possibility of sovereignty with the implementation of the Antarctic Treaty of The island-continent is also divided into three time zones: eastern, central, and western.
Within these various natural and political boundaries, Australia encompasses a wide variety of landscapes and forms; even within states and territories, deserts and rain forests exist within fairly close proximity of each other. The average rainfall for the country as a whole differs from year to year but ranges from just 6.
This vast variation, however, masks the fact that the continent is dominated far more by its lack of water than by the few areas with an abundance of this resource; Australia is the second driest continent on Earth after Antarctica. An interesting feature of Australian deserts is that they do not resemble the Sahara or high deserts of California and Nevada. Because of the great antiquity of Australian deserts, plants have had time to adapt to the arid conditions and thus in most places where rabbits, camels, or cattle have not overgrazed the land, they are covered with grasses, shrubs, and even trees.
While the desert regions in Australia have been expanding for hundreds if not thousands of years, especially in the western plateau and The age of the Australian desert means that a plethora of plants have adapted to the dry conditions; newer deserts, such as the Sahara, have far less plant life.
According to the Australian Rainforest Foundation, since the start of the 18th century the continent has lost at least three quarters of its tropical rain forest and nearly as much of its subtropical forest to the logging industry. As a result, today rain forest makes up just 0.
Many of the remaining 16, square miles 4. Australia is also currently experiencing severe degradation of some of its most important river systems. The Macquarie River system in New South Wales is under similar stress, as are many others in southern and central Australia, resulting in vociferous debate between environmentalists and irrigators over the amount of water that can be taken from these rivers each year.
Fromwhen the Hydro-Electric Commission HEC named the Franklin-Gordon as an appropriate place for a dam project, through the summer of —83, when the Franklin River blockade saw more than 1, people arrested for civil disobedience in the region, the entire country focused on the battle between the state government and HEC on one side and the federal government and environmentalists on the other.
As is the case with its wet and dry areas, Australia is also a land of contrasts in elevation, though it contains no mountains equivalent in size to the Rockies, Alps, or Andes. At the low end, Lake Eyre is a massive salt sink with 3, square miles 9, sq. In conjunction with these extremes in elevation, Australia exhibits great variation in average temperatures. The extremes range from The hottest place in the country is Marble Bar, Western Australia, with an annual mean temperature of over Virtually the only relatively new feature of Australia is its coastline, which came into being about 12, years ago, when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age separated Tasmania, the Torres Strait Islands, New Guinea, and thousands of other, smaller islands from the mainland.
At the other end of the spectrum, some sands in Western Australia have been found to be 4. A prime example is the platypus, one of only two monotremes in the world today; the other, the echidna, lives only in Australia and neighboring New Guinea.
Hunter was fascinated by the combination of body parts, Φάνης - FS Band* - The Fame Story 3 Album 2004-2005 - Part One (CD, which seem to have been assembled from other animals.
But the platypus was no hoax. Rather, it is an animal that, like mammals, is covered in fur. The most anomalous feature of the platypus is that the female lacks any kind of uterus and instead has oviducts that release eggs directly into the cloaca, a segment of the excretory tract; males urinate through their cloaca but have a penis that excretes semen.
In a German physiologist, Henning and has been attached to all the other landmasses in two supercontinents, Rodinia and Pangaea, and to South America, Africa, Antarctica, and India in Gondwana.
Despite the millions of years during which Australia was connected to other landmasses, in the past 50 million years or so the continent has been adrift in the ocean, completely separated from any other land formation. Another Australian animal icon, the dingo, is actually a fairly recent import from Asia, having arrived from there between 6, and 15, years ago Australian Fauna As a result of this wealth, while the U.
In fact, in early Australia was the only G country that had not experienced recession as a result of the global economic downturn. People The population of Australia at P. This number is based on a formula that one birth occurs in Australia every one minute, 55 seconds; one death occurs every three minutes, 57 seconds; and the net gain from migration is one person every two minutes, 38 seconds. For a landmass approximately the size of the continental United States, a population of just over 22 million people would seem to be low, and the population density is one of the lowest in the world, at about 7.
Jared Diamond cites an estimate that Australian soil and water resources are enough to support a population of only about eight million This feature of Australian society is nothing new. The United Kingdom has been the most consistent source of Australian migrants over the past years. Because of this overwhelming majority in the early days, the popular image of Australia is of a largely homogeneous Anglo population prior to the start of European migration in the late s; however, this image is not entirely accurate.
In addition, even in the days of the First Fleet inimmigration to Australia was never entirely English or even British. Irish convicts arrived inand that country has continued to be an important source of immigrants, so much so that the dominant population in Australia is usually referred to as Anglo-Celtic rather than simply Anglo or English.
This great diversity of people lends great religious diversity to the country as well, with 6 percent of the population adhering to a wide variety of non-Christian faiths, including Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism, and another 31 percent professing no faith at all. Since the landing of the First Fleet inAustralia has been a predominantly urban society. Today about 88 percent of the Australian population lives in urban areas, with 64 percent living in the capital cities alone, which is double the rate of the United States Clancy In addition, the arid nature of most of the continent and the extreme heat and humidity in the far north have made large-scale settlement in these regions next to impossible.
Rather than looking strictly at gross domestic product GDP or other economic factors, the HDI combines income purchasing power purchasing power parity, or PPPlife expectancy, and educational attainment United Nations Development Program7.
Australia ranks just 22nd in the world on the income measurement, at U. In comparison, the United States is 13th on the HDI overall: ninth in purchasing power, 21st in educational attainment, and 26th in life expectancy at As a result of harsh and discriminatory laws that have impeded self-determination for more than years, this population in had a life expectancy that on average was 18 years less than that of other Australians, a household income rate only 62 percent that of non-Indigenous Australians, an unemployment rate more than three times the national average, and much lower educational attainments Australian Human Rights Commission Another repercussion of generations of repression and this vast inequality is that 11 A Brief History of Australia Indigenous people, while constituting a tiny proportion of the general population in Australia, made up 22 percent of the prison population in ; some 6 percent of the Indigenous male population between 25 and 29 were imprisoned, compared to only 0.
On the one hand, Australia is home to the oldest surviving culture on Earth, where for between 45, and 60, years countless thousands of generations lived and died but left relatively few markers behind through which we can understand their long history. In the approximately years between and the present, non-Indigenous Australians have transformed their culture and territory so thoroughly that very little of the original remains.
It is with this process of transformation that this book is primarily concerned. Other changes in social structures, social systems, languages, and technological know-how are also sure to have taken place over the course of this span of 60, years. Despite this certain diversity and change, the historical record for these populations remains fairly sparse for a number of reasons.
Second, ecological change has placed the earliest archaeological sites on the continent under water. Third, our science is not yet able to verify with percent reliability the dates of organic materials from as far back as the earliest migrations. Finally, vastly different views of the nature of existence between Aboriginal and other peoples mean that Aboriginal oral histories have often been misunderstood when told to outsiders.
Of course, a certain degree of conjecture based on these various sources of information is also inherent in this kind of salvage history writing but will be kept here to only the most viable hypotheses based on the hard evidence currently available. These lands formed the continent of Sahul, a landmass approximately the size of contemporary Europe west of the Ural Mountains.
The continent contained a large number of unique plant and animal species due to its long period of isolation about 38 million years from other landmasses, including an estimated 13 species of so-called megafauna. The climate was generally cooler and drier than the region is today, with periglacial and even glacial regions in the Highlands of New Guinea and the Dividing Ranges of southeastern Australia.
Tropical forests covered the northern lowlands, while temperate forests existed in the south and highlands of the north. The center of the continent contained both deserts and savannahs, as it does today. Other hypotheses, such as migration direct from India or even the in situ evolution of humanity in Sahul, have been disproven in recent decades with the development of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid mtDNA analysis. Like the migration route, the period of initial migration is also a highly contested feature of Aboriginal Australian history that involves archaeologists, physical anthropologists, geneticists, linguists, botanists, and a host of other scientists.
Nonetheless, until the s, most scientists believed the original period of migration was as recent as about 10,—12, years ago, or about the same time as the colonization of the Americas from northern Asia. With the development of advanced carbon 14 dating techniques, this date was pushed out toward 40, years before the present BP by the middle of the s.
And with the development of thermoluminescence dating in the s, 60, years BP has become a common estimate. Genetic testing of mitochondrial DNA, which looks at female lineages of certain genes and determines age through the evaluation of gene mutations, has also provided dates of around 60, years BP for the initial peopling of the continent.
Nonetheless, contradictory evidence from other disciplines has compelled scientists to continue exploring this intriguing subject. The use of TL on materials found in Jinmium, Western Australia, has likewise produced a date as far back asyears, though this has since been forcefully rebutted by others. Nevertheless, because their conclusions do not take genetic evidence into account, many consider this a conservative date. All living things sustain an amount of C14 in balance with the amount present in the atmosphere.
This amount remains constant in the organism until the moment of death, at which time the C14 begins to decay at a half-life rate of 5, years. C14 has approximately 10 half-lives, or 57, years, the furthest back radiocarbon dating can go. The dating process compares the amount of C14 in the atmosphere to that remaining in the organism, thus providing its time of death.
Organisms suitable for such dating are animal or human bone, charcoal, peat, marine shell, and antlers or parts thereof. In the s scientists working on the problem of dating noncarbon-bearing samples developed several methods of luminescence dating, the most common of these being thermoluminescence, or TL. This method can date inorganic material containing crystalline minerals that when either heated, as with pottery, or exposed to sunlight, as with sediments, accumulate radiation.
The amount of light released in the heating process is correlated with the amount of radiation stored within the material. While thermoluminescence has an age range that is often far greater than that of C14 dating, it Album) used in conjunction with a variety of other methods of dating and biological processes for greater accuracy.
In addition, simulation studies, which use computer modeling in the creation of hypotheses, have posited that there have to have been multiple migratory groups to Sahul to prevent incest and sex imbalances. What these simulation studies do not tell us, however, is whether or not these multiple migrations took place over several years, decades, centuries, or even millennia.
As a result of recent studies, physical anthropologists and geneticists working in the area of mtDNA believe they have answered this long-standing question in favor of the shortest possible time lag between migrations. Their data show with relative certainty that Australia, New Guinea, and all of Melanesia were populated by a single group of migrants who left Africa 70, years ago at the earliest and populated their current home about 58, years ago, plus or minus 8, years Hudjashova et al.
This same evidence also points to a long period of relative isolation after this initial migration, whereby even prior to the submergence of the land bridge linking Australia and New Guinea, the populations of these two regions remained largely separate. The history of this population remains fairly vague after they began settling Sahul. We do not know whether communities fought wars against each other or were so spread out on the vast continent as to be able to live peaceably.
We do not know how soon their proto-Australian language or languages began dividing into the vast number of Australian and Papuan languages evident by the time of European contact in the 17th century. We do not know whether the Dreaming stories and their accompanying rituals, which make up the backbone of Aboriginal religion even today, were imported with them, were developed during the period of migration, or were begun after settlement on the continent.
The list of unanswered and probably unanswerable questions about this most ancient of populations is very long. Of course local fruits, roots, greens, mushrooms, and other gathered foods would also have made up a substantial portion of their 19 A Brief History of Australia diet, as attested by the evidence provided by contemporary food collectors. But none of these foods left behind remains that could survive in middens, prehistoric garbage dumps the way that shells and bones could, and so their exact importance can only be surmised today.
In the north heavy stone axes have been found in the most ancient middens, while in the south this kind of tool emerged only in the past few thousand years Hiscock The small size of the pre-LGM middens found in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea indicates that the people who created them must have migrated often, from daily to seasonally, depending on locale and season.
This kind of migration pattern is generally indicative of very low populations and population densities; relative equality between all adults, where the only distinctions are age and sex; no craft specialization or division of labor aside from those based on age and sex; no formal political or leadership roles; no concept of private property; a highly varied diet; and minimal risk of starvation. This inherent mobility, which facilitates access to foods as they ripen or become available and ability to harvest them in a sustainable manner, also limits people in band societies to minimal portable possessions, usually just carrying bags, weapons, and possibly some light tools or ritual objects.
Everything else, from heavy stone tools to clothing, is made from local resources in each new residence. Housing would have been in either caves or leantos made anew in each location. And we cannot be certain that life in pre-LGM Sahul was similar to the life of food collectors who lived in bands in the 20th century, where on average only 20 Aboriginal History about four hours per day were required to make, gather, and hunt all the necessities of life.
The very low populations and population densities probably allowed each group to move as needed to seek out sources of food and water.
Unlike most agricultural societies, which are at great risk of famine because most calories are consumed from just one grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, or from a single starch such as sago, potatoes, or cassava, food collectors have access to a wide array of foods. There is very little risk inherent in food collecting because when there is a shortage of one food, a variety of others is usually available, and there is always the possibility for migration to new, more resourcerich areas.
In general, then, we can conclude that life in pre-LGM Sahul was of a very small scale. While all adults likely had a say in a move, the words of elders and men were probably taken more seriously than those of younger people or women.
Aside from these differences based on age and gender, these societies would have exhibited no class or caste distinctions and all members of the band would have had access to food and other things as needed. Prehistory: 22, BP— C. Average temperatures were quite a bit lower than previously, and dry winds made those temperatures feel even colder. Evaporation rates were higher than either today or in the previous period, and rainfall is estimated to have been about half of what it is today Hiscock These sites were probably so dry that even underground and other previously reliable water sources dried up and thus could not support life; another theory is that the areas around these sites became so dry that it was impossible for large groups to carry enough water with them to migrate into them.
After the end of the last glacial maximal about 17, years ago, conditions in Sahul began to change. The most important cause of these changes was the rise in global sea levels, which over the course of 10, years eventually separated the Australian mainland from Tasmania and New Guinea. In addition to the loss of territory, climate change affected the continent in ways that are still not understood.
Warmer conditions and an increase in carbon dioxide CO2 in the atmosphere may have set the stage for more plant life. Greater rainfall may have opened up certain desert locations that had been abandoned during the LGM, while warmer temperatures may have caused this additional moisture to evaporate as soon as it fell.
Socially, the decrease in available territory caused by inundation contributed to higher population densities. This fundamental change, however, does not seem to have brought about any categorical change in social structure. Post-LGM Aboriginal societies remained bands, organized around the dual principles of kinship and residence and exhibiting all of the relative equality of their pre-LGM ancestors. Even in New Guinea, where population pressures about 9, years ago contributed to the domestication of plants and the development of a horticultural subsistence base, extensive redistribution systems eliminated differences in wealth almost as soon as they emerged and no formal leadership roles developed prior to the colonial era.
The same was certainly true in Australia, where horticulture could not develop, making it impossible to accumulate large food surpluses.
The combination of higher population densities and climate change also caused many material changes to post-LGM Aboriginal life, especially the need for more intensive utilization of resources in each locality.
For example, many of the chert tools and fragments found in pre-LGM and LGM era middens had been carried far from their original sources. For many archaeologists, this indicates greater mobility at that time due to the requirements of hunting and gathering in the cold, dry climate.
This mobility also points to the ability of each band to roam far and wide without encroaching on the territory of other bands. Many post-LGM sites also indicate that trade relations increased in that period and thus gave each band access to a somewhat wider array of goods without their being forced to migrate. Another important material change in the post-LGM context was the widespread creation of art and body decorations. Very few preLGM sites indicate the presence of red or yellow ochre or any other artistic media.
All of the rock art for which Aboriginal Australians are famous, such as X-ray art of animals and dot paintings showing song lines and the footsteps of the ancestors, was created in the post-LGM 23 A Brief History of Australia X-ray painting and dot painting are the two best-known forms of traditional Aboriginal art.
This example comes from the Kakadu region of the Northern Territory. Whether this material change is indicative of greater complexity in Aboriginal religious and ritual life at this time or another result of higher population densities and reduced mobility may never be known.
A further possibility is that all pre-LGM rock art was destroyed by inundation or simply eroded over time. The fact that there are two possible examples of pre-LGM rock art in the Cape York Peninsula area of northern Australia in the form of ochre smudges on rock overhangs may provide evidence for this theory.
After the LGM, Aboriginal people also began to make more widespread changes to their natural environment than they had prior to and during the LGM. Lack of suitable candidates for domestication, such as those that could have provided enough food effectively to replace hunting and gathering, however, meant that domestication of these plants never occurred. Indeed, even in the postcolonial context, the only native Australian plant to have been domesticated for widespread human consumption is the macadamia nut, and no native animal has been domesticated Diamond As have other aspects of the most ancient Aboriginal history, this hypothesis concerning greater control of the natural environment in the post-LGM period has been challenged.
This remains a contentious hypothesis that requires far more evidence than is currently available. These land management practices indicate not only a deep knowledge of the local environment but also, contrary to what the early British settlers thought, a strong commitment to particular parcels of land.
While Aboriginal people did not have large food surpluses because of a lack of domesticable plants and animals that would have allowed them to build permanent towns and cities, they did not simply live in a state of nature. Each community owned the rights to use parcels of land and their resources and managed those parcels with complex strategies of burning, planting, animal transfers, and animal management.
Culture As is the case with so many features of precontact life there is contemporary debate about whether the conceptual and structural aspects of Aboriginal cultural life evident to Europeans in the 19th century were continuations from the past or relatively new adaptations to the colonial world. For example, Peter Hiscock believes that the complex Aboriginal kinship systems evident to Europeans at the end of the 19th 25 A Brief History of Australia century were the result of dramatic population loss from smallpox in rather than a continuation of precontact structures, while others, such as Ian Keen and Josephine Flood, disagree Molloy The foundation of Aboriginal culture and society in the period before European contact had to have been kinship.
All laws, residential patterns, taboos, and other aspects of communal life were dictated by kinship principles. Individual relationships, from food sharing requirements and other etiquette rules to potential marriage partners, were also dictated largely by kinship, in association with residency, which itself was largely directed by kinship.
In the contemporary world this code remains very important, even for the majority of Aboriginal Australians who live in urban areas. For example, a father, his brothers, and his male lineal cousins are all called father; a mother, her sisters, and her female lineal cousins are all called mother.
This does not mean that Aboriginal people did not know who their actual mother and father were, but that rights and responsibilities extended far beyond the nuclear family. One of the most interesting aspects of these kinship 26 Aboriginal History rules for many outsiders is the pattern of avoidance relationships many Aboriginal people are required to follow. While not all Aboriginal groups had these kinds of avoidance relationships between categories of relatives, many did and still do to this day.
Although Aboriginal Australians had one of the simplest tool kits of all the colonized peoples in the world, they may also have had some of the most complex structures to manage their webs of kinship.
In many tribes each individual was a member of a family, lineage, clan, tribe, subsection, section, and moiety. Individuals had to manage different kinds of relationships with each person based on these categories, including joking and avoidance requirements, exogamy and endogamy rules, and obligations of social and economic reciprocity.
Religion Dreaming stories form the basis of Australian Aboriginal religion. They provide explanations for how and why the world is the way it is, which usually relate to the actions of ancestors who created the world. The world depicted in these stories is much more complex than that of most Westerners, for whom the natural and supernatural, past and present, sacred and profane are separate.
For Aboriginal Australians, these planes of existence are intertwined. Ancient ancestors created the world and everything in it, including rocks, lakes, animals, humans, the wind, and rain, but are also active in the present. Their past actions cannot be separated from present actions, especially in ritual, which remakes the world each time it is undertaken.
The song lines or footprints of these ancient ancestors continue to cross the Australian continent and carry information back and forth from one community to another. Sacred spaces along these lines coexist with everyday or profane spaces, often materialized in rocks, rivers, and other geological features. Because of this continual sacred presence and the association in English with sleeping, many Aboriginal people prefer not to use the term Dreaming to refer to their religious beliefs but instead rely on the term used in their own language.
As mentioned, there is little evidence for the rock art that depicts Dreaming stories in Australia prior to the post-LGM period. The archaeologist Bruno David takes this argument even further, claiming that modern Dreaming did not emerge until between and BP That said, there is solid archaeological evidence that Dreaming has been the basis of Aboriginal Australian religion for several thousand years, affecting both belief and practice through the present.
Another feature of Aboriginal religion is the sacred or totemic nature of certain plants, animals, geographic features, and Φάνης - FS Band* - The Fame Story 3 Album 2004-2005 - Part One (CD aspects of nature, including the Moon.
Each clan not only is represented by its totem but is said to embody and be descended from it. For example, members of the kangaroo clan are believed to have had the same ancestor as contemporary kangaroos; the same is true of the spinifex clan, witchety grub clan, and so on. As a result, these animals and plants are sacred to their particular groups, who must not hunt or eat them or use them for other profane purposes.
As do other religions, Aboriginal religion has a body of myth contained in its creation stories, rules and prohibitions to follow, and a series of rituals that bring the myths to life. Aboriginal rituals likewise reenact the most important moments in the lives of their sacred ancestors as a way of connecting past and present.
Rituals also provide moments for younger Aboriginal people to learn from their elders the words to songs, the moves to dances, the beat to songs, and the power of the ancestors in the past and present world. Language A third feature of Aboriginal culture that is evident today and indicative of great changes over the tens of thousands of years of Aboriginal residence in Australia is the clustering of all Aboriginal languages into two large groups, Pama-Nyungan and non-Pama-Nyungan, which is sometimes also called Arafuran Clendon Unlike the British, the Macassans did not try Φάνης - FS Band* - The Fame Story 3 Album 2004-2005 - Part One (CD colonize the land or people of Marege.
Their main motivation was to supply the lucrative Chinese markets with an important resource, the trepang. This goal meant building long-term, meaningful relationships with the people who could help them meet their goal. For the Yolngu and other Aboriginal peoples in the region, this was a partnership of predictable seasonal interactions with people who recognized their status as owners of the land and who, importantly, departed with the northern monsoonal winds.
Occasional localized violence between the two groups, often over access to women, broke out and, according to the anthropologist Ian McIntoshled to the almost complete annihilation of clans at Dholtji Cape Wilberforce through violence and introduced disease. Some of these theories include the separation of these two groups in antiquity and subsequent differentiation over time; others posit that an incoming migratory group introduced dingoes, new stone tool technology, and Pama-Nyungan languages several thousand years ago Mulvaney and Kamminga73— As is evident from these few select cultural features and historical trends, even prior to the colonial period in Australia the continent housed a dynamic, diverse population that over many millennia had continually adapted to climate and social change.
Macassan hunters of trepang began to interact with Aboriginal Australians two centuries later. The Chinese may also have landed in the far north, although it is possible that the Ming dynasty statue found near Darwin was carried by Macassans rather than Chinese sailors themselves. Despite the importance of Spain and Portugal in the Age of Exploration, there is only circumstantial evidence that explorers from those countries sailed as far south as Australia during this period.
There is little doubt that Torres saw the mainland, but he seems to have mistaken it for yet another island and failed to go ashore or report to the Spanish the existence of the legendary southern continent. Today the strait explored by Torres bears his name in honor of his early achievement. The background for this exploration was geopolitical in nature. Their answer to this problem was to seek their own path to the spice islands, resulting in their mission around the Cape of Good Hope and the eventual establishment of the very successful Dutch colony in what is today Indonesia.
The Duyfken on this fateful trip was captained by Willem Janszoon. Besides gold he would also have been seeking other salable commodities, from spices to fur.
Although Tasman failed to make contact with the Aboriginal people, certainly other Dutch explorers did have interactions with them, of both a positive and a negative nature.
In the Dutch ship Batavia was wrecked off the west coast and two of the survivors were banished to the mainland for mutiny. They were never seen by Europeans again but must have interacted in some way with the local population.
A number of survivors made it to Batavia Jakarta and described their harrowing experience, although their directions failed to turn up the rocks that caused the wreck, or the ship itself. Upon his return to Britain, Dampier penned his second best seller, A Voyage to New Holland, in which he described not only his Australian adventures but also time spent in New Guinea, Timor, and Brazil.
Even the Dutch sent only two expeditions, in andwhich resulted in almost no new information about the imposing southern continent. His publicly stated task, given by the Royal Society, was to be in Tahiti on June 3,to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun, which previous British teams had failed to do during the transit of The expedition was to observe the transit, chart new territory, gather as many specimens from the natural world as possible, and provide drawings, journals, and maps upon their return.
The expedition, by most accounts, was a success. For several years Cook remained on the northeast coast of North America, surveying Nova Scotia and Newfoundland on the Northumberland and wintering in Halifax. As a result of this journey, both Australia and New Zealand were claimed for England and the stage was set for the later colonization of both locations. In political terms, certainly the most important was the claiming for England of New Zealand in and New South Wales in The American colonies had been used for that purpose for many decades; about 50, people were sent there between and Morgan and Rushton For a few years after the American Revolution stopped this practice, convicted 37 A Brief History of Australia felons in England served their sentences in the hulls of prison ships, until transportation began anew incommencing a whole new chapter in Australian history.
Before this initial settlement, however, in Cook and Captain Tobias Furneaux sailed again for the southern ocean to continue English exploration of the new continent. Cook had no reason to doubt his second in command and thus never returned to the region to investigate it for himself. Together with his childhood friend Dr.
George Bass and William Martin, Flinders began in by exploring the intricate coastline around Port Jackson in their tiny, six-foot boat, the Tom Thumb. In July Flinders began his month journey around the continent, which he called Australia, thus proving to all that New Holland and New South Wales were the same landmass.
Unfortunately, after completing this journey, Flinders never returned to Australia again. On his way back to England he was held prisoner in Mauritius from December through June because of the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and France and died at the age of 40 after completing his massive work, A Voyage to Terra Australis, published just one day before his death in July Cooper He left behind statements of proclamation and several coins in bottles buried on the island.
France never followed up on the claim, however, and the bottles were not found until Shark Bay World Heritage Area He called in at Sydney in but never arrived at the Swan River site he was to scope out for possible colonization. His mission did push the English, however, to lay claim to the western half of the continent, as they did on Christmas Day, The Dutch had made a prior claim to that territory, but their long neglect and failure to leave any lasting settlement left it open to the British.
Another Frenchman, Hyacinthe de Bougainville, son of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, was also sent on a political mission to New South Wales when he was directed to spy on the Sydney colony during his time there in mid One of the clearest signs that this was the impetus behind the sailing of the First Fleet to Australia in was that the governor of the new colony, Arthur Phillip, had risen to prominence in Britain as an international spy in France and South America Clarke44, Interestingly, among the convicts were not only people of English and Scottish nationality but also Germans, Norwegians, and both black and white Americans Molony The ship contingent took just over eight months to arrive at Botany Bay on January 19—20,only to be bitterly disappointed at what they found.
Most distressing was the lack of freshwater. In less than a week, Phillip was forced to transfer his small colony to the slightly more promising region of Port Jackson, contemporary Sydney.
January 26 continues to be celebrated throughout much of the country as Australia Day, except in many Aboriginal communities, where the day is marked as Invasion Day or Survival Day to denote the beginning of the disease, violence, and invasive government policies that destroyed life as they knew it. The Aboriginal population, which was vastly larger than Cook and Banks had reported, began dying of introduced diseases almost immediately.
The worst epidemic was smallpox, which killed an estimated 50 percent of the population in a matter of months in Despite its emergence in New South Wales at the time of settlement, the source of this epidemic was actually contact between trepangers from the Indonesian archipelago and Aboriginal people in Arnhem Land rather than the First Fleet Hiscock The convicts and soldiers of the settlement also suffered, from lack of food, clothing, and shelter and from violence at the hands of the Aboriginal people; even Governor Phillip suffered a fairly serious wound to the side from an Aboriginal spear in a formalized retaliation for some wrong Perkinsepisode 1.
Following the First Fleet, which lost one of its supply ships off Norfolk Island, the British sent a provision ship to provide extra food and support. Unfortunately, after loading with supplies at the Cape of Good Hope, the ship, HMS Guardian, crashed into an iceberg and was destroyed trying to return to the cape. As a result, the Second Fleet pulled into Port Jackson in June with its human cargo of convicts and many hundreds of others akin to those who sailed with the First Fleet, before any additional supplies arrived to support the burgeoning colony.
Producing food in the harsh climate around Sydney was almost as great a challenge as the lack of imported supplies. The hoes, shovels, and axes with which the convicts tried to break the dry, dusty earth and fell the heavy eucalyptus 42 European Exploration and Early Settlement trees were woefully inadequate to the task. Seeds carried from the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope were so barren that the new colonists began to believe the Dutch had purposefully sold them shoddy goods.
One of the most important things that all governments in the colony did was to encourage marriages among all the single people in residence, convicts or otherwise. Female convicts who received an offer of marriage were usually freed in order to take up that offer, and, aftermale convicts could apply to have their wives and families transported to New South Wales at no cost. Despite the emphasis on morality, one institution that had only nominal support from the colonial structure was the church.
Ecclesiastical leaders from both the Anglican and, afterthe Roman Catholic traditions were welcomed in the colony, but only for the purpose of maintaining order among the convicts, if possible.
References to God do not occur in any of the documents related to the founding of the colony, either those produced in England before sailing or those produced in the colony after Φάνης - FS Band* - The Fame Story 3 Album 2004-2005 - Part One (CD Molony32— While some members of this group were thieves and other common felons, a large number were actual or reputed revolutionaries who had participated in various uprisings against the British.
Rather than seeing these fantasies as the result of generations of struggle for freedom by the Irish, the British considered them further signs of Irish stupidity and superstition. Free settlers who arrived in New South Wales were also eligible for land and convict labor. As a result of their control of labor through their control of rum, the New South Wales Corps gained the nickname the Rum Corps; their later rebellion against Governor Bligh is called the Rum Rebellion for the same reason Clarke A third issue that had to be worked out for the smooth functioning of the new colony was the relationship between the settlers and the Aboriginal people.
According to both his orders and, seemingly, his disposition, Governor Phillip was more humane than subsequent colonial governors. Phillip was so taken with the civilization and striking behavior of the Indigenous people that he gave the place-name Manly to their home 44 European Exploration and Early Settlement by the cove. At the same time, the two Aboriginal men with whom Phillip had any kind of relationship, Bennelong and Arabanoo, were both kidnapped by white soldiers and presented to him to Album) as potential translators and intermediaries between their people and the governor.
Arabanoo quickly succumbed to smallpox and died while being held captive, but Bennelong survived the epidemic and went on to learn English and even travel back to England with Phillip when Portrait of Bennelong, circa ink on card by Lt.
George Austin Woods 19th he returned home in While Pemulwuy escaped capture for a dozen years, in he was killed and his head removed from his body, preserved in spirits, and sent to Joseph Banks in England for research purposes Molony Caesar was a convict who escaped from Port Jackson numerous times between and The same combination of geopolitical motivation, especially preventing the French from settling the region, and the need to settle convicts was also at play in these years.
The British looked upon the food collectors, with their limited tool kits and very short working days, as lazy, indolent, and stupid for not wanting to participate in the white world. In the towns as well, Aboriginal people, some of whom had succumbed to the plentiful supply of rum, were harassed and driven from view. There are examples of white men and women who were ambushed and killed by Aboriginal groups and plenty of sheep, cattle, and other objects were stolen. Nevertheless, the relative positions of the Aboriginal and settler communities at the time were that one possessed spears, the other guns; one was dying by the thousands of introduced diseases to which the other had relative immunity; and one had occupied the land for tens of thousands of years, while the other had invaded and annexed land without compensation to the other.
For example, in the s in the Bathurst region of New South Wales, the murder of seven to nine white men led eventually to the 47 A Brief History of Australia slaughter of at least a third of the Wiradjuri people in the region.
This gave the white community far greater contact and strife with the local Aboriginal people, the Wiradjuri; the resulting violence is sometimes called the Bathurst war or the war. One of the leading characters in this drama was a Wiradjuri leader named Windradyne, or Saturday as he is often called. In late Windradyne was captured trying to free a number of his own people who were being held by the white authorities. After a severe beating and a month-long imprisonment, Windradyne was released and returned to his people, among whom he continued the struggle against white settlements.
By early the war had taken a turn for the worse with the murder of seven stockmen by Aboriginal warriors and at least Aboriginal women and children at the hands of white vigilantes. At that time Governor Brisbane declared martial law, authorizing the murder of Aboriginal people on sight. This act did little to quell the violence in the region and eventually led to the deaths of about 1, Wiradjuri people before Windradyne sought peace with his enemies.
For all the violence between Aboriginal and white people, hundreds if not thousands of Aboriginal people lost their lives to both vigilante and authorized gunmen. Nonetheless, almost no white murderers were ever brought to account. The only exception occurred in After the Myall Creek massacre of 28 Wirrayaraay women, children, and elderly men by white stockmen, the owner of the station on which it happened, Henry Dangar, reported the incident to the authorities as murder.
The initial trial saw the acquittal of the 11 stockmen charged with the offense, but at a second trial on a different charge, seven stockmen were convicted and hanged. At the center of this change were John and Elizabeth Macarthur. The Macarthurs and their eldest child had arrived in the New South Wales colony with the Second Fleet inJohn as a member of the New South Wales Corps with his family as free settlers, and soon established their farm on the Parramatta River not far from the Port Jackson colony.
During his absence Elizabeth managed the family farm and grew its burgeoning herd of merinos from 1, to 4, head. John returned, triumphant, in with orders from the secretary of state, Earl Camden, for 10, acres 4, ha of land and 30 convicts to work it Clarke The Macarthur family fortunes, however, did not progress entirely smoothly from this period.
In reaction the British government returned the entire corps to England, and their leader, Major Johnston, was arrested. At the trial in Johnston was found guilty and dismissed in disgrace from his position; Macarthur was denied the right to return to New South Wales untilleaving Elizabeth in charge of the farm, shipping, and other economic interests the family had developed.
Squatters took their herds beyond the established 19 counties around Sydney and set up vast sheep runs between Port Jackson and Port Phillip. Even with a three-year depression in the early s, by Australian wool made up Just one year into their marriage, John was sent to Port Jackson as part of the New South Wales Corps and his family accompanied him, arriving in June Nevertheless, less than four years after their arrival on Australian soil their small farm at Parramatta was doing very well.
Their sons, Edward, William, and James, who had been named after his dead brother, all received a primary education in the colony and then further education back in England, while their daughters, Elizabeth, Mary, and Emmeline, all remained in New South Wales and married into the highest level of colonial society. Through her busy child-rearing years and the eight years during which her husband, John, was exiled in England, Elizabeth continued to be an important presence in the colony.
Not long after her husband returned from exile inhe began to spend more and more time away from his family. He suffered from what was called melancholia, probably a form of depression, and experienced bouts of rage when he believed Elizabeth had been unfaithful to him.
Despite his moods, Elizabeth remained loyal to her husband and fought to keep the family together until his death in Macquarie was a complex character, who, on the one hand, believed in the superiority of British and Protestant institutions Clark He had angered the wealthy by promoting the economic power of emancipated convicts. Cesta I. Dinner With Friends Film adaptation. DirectX10 Direct3D. Diskografia Dominiky Mirgovej ref a. Diskografia Dominiky Mirgovej. Diskografia Rihanny ref a.
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Software Sites Software Capsules Compilation Tucows Software Library CD-ROM Images Shareware CD-ROMs ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD. Featured image All images latest This Just In Flickr Commons Occupy Wall Street Flickr Cover Art USGS Maps. Brooklyn Museum. Full text of "The war illustrated album de luxe; the story of the great European war told. The volume is then formatted with the appropriate file system. So in the case of Windows, the volume file system is the New Technology File System (NTFS), and in UNIX/Linux machines, the volume file system is the extended file system (ext4 as an example). Figure shows the physical, logical, and volume levels of storage.
1 - 2 - 3 - - Dangereusement Votre 4 - - Vivre et laisser mourir 5 - Tuer n'est pas Jouer 6 - B.C. - A Mediterranean Odyssey.
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